Buckwheat
Fagopyrum esculentum

Quick establishment and growth, not winter-hardy.
Buckwheat suppresses weeds and attracts beneficial insects and pollinators with its abundant blossoms.

Sowing rate: 12-16 kg/acre

Linseed
Linum usitatissimum

Annual, seeds used to obtain oil or for putting in gamecover or wildbird seed mixtures, not frost-tolerant, strong and resistant to lodging, flowers are usually blue, can be sparse if sown as a stand-alone crop.

Sowing rate: 20-25 kg/acre

White mustard
Sinapis alba

Excellent weed suppression, N scavenger, be careful with brassica rotation. White mustard is an erect sparsely branching plant with alternate irregularly lobed leaves. The yellow four-petaled flowers have a fragrance similar to honey.

Sowing rate: 2.5-4 kg/acre

Phacelia
Phacelia tanacetifolia

Quick establishment, good weed suppression. Releases P, Ca and Mg to soil when it decomposes. It is an appropriate green manure in a N-rich stubble, in which it can produce a high biomass and catch nitrogen from leaching.

Sowing rate: 1-2 kg/acre


Oilseed radish
Raphanus sativus

Oilseed radish develops a unique taproot that reaches depths of six feet. Under favourable conditions, oilseed radish seedlings can emerge as soon as 3 days after planting, and provide full canopy cover to shade out weeds in 3-4 weeks.

Sowing rate: 4-6 kg/acre

Common vetch
Vicia sativa

Nitrogen fixing, good weed suppression. Good option grown with oats. It is a deep rooting and fast growing plant, it is winter-hardy and produces considerable biomass.

Sowing rate: 5 kg/acre

Leafy turnip
Brassica rapa L. silvestris

Fast growing, excellent forage for grazing livestock. Economical and can be grazed after December 1st under GLAS. Leafy turnips come into production early, due to their high early vigour.

Sowing rate: 2 kg/acre

Forage rape
Brassica napus

Flexible sowing date and good leaf to stem ratio, grows fast and vigorously after sowing, excellent leaf quality due to its palatability and leaf protein, very common among farmers for fattening lambs.

Sowing rate: 3.5-4 kg/acre

Kale
Brassica oleracea

High yielding with high crude protein, good winter-hardiness, can be fed to cattle and sheep, can be grazed in-situ, livestock should be supplemented with lodine & phosphorous, diets should be properly balanced.

Sowing rate: 2.5-3 kg/acre